George Scott, a Methodist missionary from England, influenced by the Pietists through John Wesley’s teachings, traveled to Sweden bringing the conventions of revival with him. As a resourceful entrepreneur, he created schools, trained preachers and wrote publications that stirred the hearts of the Swedish people. Scott was eventually outcast from Sweden for his robust teachings. His young tutelage, Carl Olof Rosenius, a Swede, took over from where Scott had begun. Rosenius brought to the movement a uniquely Swedish understanding of pietism. He stressed a believer’s church as counter to the norms found in the State Church at the time.
Another one of the great framers within what would become the Covenant Church is a theologian Paul Petter Waldenström (1838-1917). Known best for his teaching on atonement, he also coined the phrase “Where is written?” which exemplifies his emphasis on the centrality of the God’s Word in the life of the Church.
In other parts of the world, the wind of democracy was blowing. In Sweden, it was no different. Stirred by these voices of change, the Swedish faithful begin to meet in homes (conventicles) to study the Word of God led by lay leaders (colporteurs). Spurred on with publications such as The Pietist, these meetings were seen as a part of a renewal movement from within the church. There people joined together to meet, pray and study while continuing to be a part of the State Church. In time, with the mounting threat of division, the conventicles were outlawed but the people continued to gather.
With a high value placed on coming to the Table, the question of communion officiation became a defining moment for those who met together. Because there were not enough pastors to go around, communion societies were founded. It was in 1878 the renewal movement became a reform movement, breaking away from the Lutheran State Church to form the Covenant Church in Sweden (Mission Covenant Church of Sweden: Svenska Missionskyrkan).